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Strict Standards: Declaration of AVH_Walker_Category_Checklist::end_el() should be compatible with Walker::end_el(&$output) in /home/storage/d/87/99/ecohabitararquitetur/public_html/blog/wp-content/plugins/extended-categories-widget/widget_extended_categories.php on line 334

Strict Standards: call_user_func_array() expects parameter 1 to be a valid callback, non-static method GoogleSitemapGeneratorLoader::Enable() should not be called statically in /home/storage/d/87/99/ecohabitararquitetur/public_html/blog/wp-includes/plugin.php on line 311
 2008 November 10 | Ecohabitar
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Sustentabilidade na Construção: nem Flintstones nem Jetsons

Publicado por ecohabitar a November 10, 2008 em Design Inteligente, Eficiência Energética, Opinião, Preservação Ambiental, Uso Racional da Água | 2 Comentários

Na edição do passado dia 22/10/2008 o caderno ambiente da Folha on-line publicou um artigo sob o título “Paulistanos deixam de comprar produtos “verdes” se custarem mais caro” onde, a determinada altura, se diz “…como se fala tanto em sustentabilidade e aquecimento global, a quantidade de informações, muitas vezes contraditórias, confunde e cansa até o mais bem intencionado ecologicamente.”
De fato, o termo “sustentabilidade” tem tantas vezes sido usado, abusado e mal explicado que, ao invés de o cidadão comum se ter familiarizado com o assunto, o efeito produzido foi exatamente o oposto, causando mesmo alguma rejeição.

Na sua vertente ligada à arquitetura e construção, o tema é apresentado freqüentemente oscilando entre duas óticas distorcidas: ora é visto como uma defesa intransigente de materiais e métodos tradicionais recusando qualquer tipo de inovação ou modernidade, ora se supõe que as suas sofisticadas soluções tecnológicas representam um custo inatingível para o cidadão comum. Pois bem, não é uma coisa nem outra. Nem Flintstones nem Jetsons.

A verdade é que o principal objetivo da sustentabilidade na construção é a eficiência energética do edifício durante todo o seu ciclo de vida. Como a concepção dos projetos é feita geralmente pensando apenas nos custos durante a construção, não são levados em consideração sistemas de racionalização energética e de uso de água. A abordagem é errada já que será o utilizador que vai pagar as contas de luz e água durante as décadas de vida útil do edifício. Segundo o Prof. Luiz Ceotto, é durante esse período de utilização cotidiana do imóvel que virá a grande fatia de custos, que poderá mesmo chegar a grossos 80% do total, enquanto que os custos com a construção representarão cerca de 14%. Dito de um outro modo, ao desconsiderar sistemas racionais de energia e de aproveitamento de água logo no projeto da casa nova, a economia conseguida (irrisória se inserida no custo total da obra) custará muito caro ao utilizador durante a futura operação do imóvel.

Vejamos por quê. O grande vilão no consumo de água nas residências é o vaso sanitário cujas descargas podem ser responsáveis por até 40% do total da conta mensal. A tecnologia de captação e aproveitamento da água da chuva hoje disponível pode simplesmente eliminar esse custo em boa parte do ano. Para além das descargas nos banheiros, as águas pluviais podem ser aproveitadas em torneiras de jardim.

Nos lares brasileiros o aquecimento elétrico de água, sistema utilizado pela maior parte da população, responde por 25% a 35% do gasto de eletricidade mensal, segundo dados do Programa Nacional de Conservação de Energia Elétrica (Procel) da Eletrobrás. Os aquecedores solares são equipamentos que reduzem significativamente os consumos de energia elétrica dos usuários de água quente. Um aquecedor solar bem dimensionado supre com facilidade mais de 70% das necessidades de água quente dos consumidores sendo que os outros 30% podem ser complementados com tecnologias convencionais como aquecedores a gás.

Imaginemos agora estas economias multiplicadas por todos os meses de vida útil da casa nova. Os valores conseguidos, muitas vezes nos primeiros 18 meses, pagam o investimento feito com os equipamentos. Estes, por sua vez, por causa da grande expansão da oferta disponível (com crescimentos anuais próximos de 50% no caso dos painéis solares) e também por políticas públicas de subsídios, têm visto os seus preços descer e hoje podemos encontrar em qualquer grande loja de material de construção kits a preços atrativos e financiados a ser instalados pelo utilizador.

Resumindo, a sustentabilidade na construção é não só possível como necessária e útil. Não é um resgate do passado nem uma ilusão do futuro. Está disponível hoje, a preços acessíveis na loja da esquina e é amiga do nosso bolso, da nossa cidade e do nosso planeta.

por

Maria Martha Nader

in Forum da Construção